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Glossary Of Terms


Accessorial Charges– charges made for performing services beyond normal pickup and delivery, such as inside delivery, stopping in transit to complete loading, or storage.
Advanced Charge – the amount of freight or other charge on a shipment advanced by one transportation line to another, or to the shipper to be collected from the consignee.
Agent – a person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another.
Aggregate Shipments – numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
Agreed Weight – the weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number.
Air Freight Forwarder – An air freight forwarder provides pickup and delivery service under its own tariff, consolidates shipments into larger units, prepares shipping documentation and tenders shipments to the airlines. Air freight forwarders do not generally operate their own aircraft and may therefore be called “indirect air carriers.” Because the air freight forwarder tenders the shipment, the airlines consider the forwarder to be the shipper.
Air Waybill – An air waybill is a shipping document airlines use. Similar to a bill of lading, the air waybill is a contract between the shipper and airline that states the terms and conditions of transportation. The air waybill also contains shipping instructions, product descriptions, and transportation charges.
Allowance – a sum granted as reimbursement or repayment, or a deduction from the gross weight or value of goods.
Alternative Rates – two or more rates, of which the one that produces the lowest charge is acceptable.
Any-Quantity Rate – a rate applicable to an article in any quantity.
Application of Rates – the points from, to, or between which the rates and routes shown in the publication, pricing agreement or customer contract applies.
Arrival Notice – a notice, furnished to the consignee, of the arrival of freight.
Articles of Extraordinary Value – Carriers are not liable for “documents, coin money, or articles of extraordinary value” unless the items are specifically rated in published classifications or tariffs. Exceptions may be made by special agreement. If an agreement is made, the stipulated value of the articles must be endorsed on the bill of lading. Articles may include precious stones, jewels, and currency. Many tariffs include restrictions on goods with values in excess of a specified amount.
Axle Load – maximum load permitted to be carried on each axle of a motor vehicle.
Axle Weight – amount of weight carried by one axle of a tractor or trailer.


Bailment – a contract (such as a bill of lading), which allows freight carriers to take possession of goods without ownership.
Balance Due Bill – a bill rendered by the carrier for under-charges.
Basing Rate – a rate used only for the purpose of constructing other rates.
Bill of Lading (BOL or B/L) – a bill of lading is a binding contract that serves three main purposes:

  1. a reciept for the goods delivered to the transportation provider for shipment;
  2. a definition or description of the goods;
  3. evidence of title to the relative goods, if “negotiable”.

Bill of Lading Exceptions – the terms and conditions of most bills of lading release transportation providers from liability for loss or damage arising from the following:

  • an act of God
  • a public enemy
  • the authority of law
  • the act or default of the shipper.

In addition, except in the case of negligence, a transportation provider will not be liable for loss, damage, or delay caused by the following:

  • the property being stopped and held in transit at the request of the shipper, owner, or party entitled to make such request;
  • lack of capacity of a highway, bridge, or ferry;
  • a defect or vice in the property;
  • riots or strikes.

Billing Sequence for Hazardous Materials (HM) – the description of HM freight on a bill of lading that requires the following information in this order; proper shipping name, hazard class, U.N. or N.A. number, packaging group, if applicable and 24-hour emergency contact telephone number.
Blanket Bond – a bond covering a group of persons, articles or properties.
Blanket Rate – the rate applicable from and/or to a group of points, or a special rate applicable on several different articles in a single shipment.
Blocking or Bracing – wood or metal supports used to keep shipments in place in or on trailers.
Bonded Carrier – a transportation provider by U.S. Customs to carry Customs-controlled merchandise between Customs points.
Bonded Indemnity – an agreement made with a transportation line relieving it from liability for any action on its part for which it would otherwise be liable.
Bonded Warehouse – a warehouse approved by the Treasury Department, utilized for storing goods until duties are paid or goods are otherwise properly released.
Break-bulk – a large terminal that separates composite loads into individual shipments, and then routes them to different destinations. Also called break or hub or distribution center.
Breakbulk Terminal – consolidation and distribution center—a terminal in the carrier’s system that unloads and consolidates shipments received from its smaller terminals and from other breakbulks .
Broker – A broker is an independent contractor paid to arrange motor carrier transportation. A broker may work on the carrier or shipper’s behalf..
Brokerage License – authority granted by the Interstate Commerce Commission to persons to engage in the business of arranging for transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.
Bulk Freight – freight not in packages or containers.


Capacity – amount of freight that can be carried in a truck or trailer, expressed in terms of weight and measurement.
Capacity Load – that quantity of freight which, in the manner loaded, fills a vehicle to the extent that no additional article in the shipping form tendered identical in size to the largest article in the shipment can be loaded.
Caretaker – an individual accompanying a shipment requiring special attention while en route. Carrier’s Freight Terminal – the freight depot or freight station of the carrier at which shipments are ordinarily loaded or unloaded.
Cargo – the lading of a motor vehicle.
Carmack – an industry term regarding loss or damage of goods— carmack is governed by 49 U.S.C 14706, which states that a motor carrier must: issue the Bill of Lading and pay the actual loss or injury to the property. However, carriers limit their liability for release value products, and can liit their damages to $25 per pound or $100,000 per shipment.
Carrier – an individual, partnership or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or persons, for a fee.
Cartage – freight hauling between locations in the same city, town, suburb, or local area.
Cartage Agent – a carrier who performs pickup or delivery in areas that common carriers do not serve

  • Cartage agents who use their own paperwork while transporting the shipment.
  • YRC Freight does not track the shipment while it is in the cartage agent’s possession
  • When YRC Freight gives a shipment to a cartage agent for delivery, the shipment is considered to be “delivered” in YRC Freight’s tracking tool.

Certificate of Weight – an authoritative statement of the weight of a shipment.

  • Cargo: A “Cargo Claim” is a demand made on a transportation company for payment for goods allegedly lost or damaged while the shipment was in the transportation provider’s possession. Pursuant to the National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) Uniform Bill of Lading, all cargo claims must be filed within 9 months.
  • Overcharge/Undercharge: Overcharge or undercharge claims are demands on a transportation company for a refund of an overcharge from the erroneous application of rates, weights and/or assessment of freight charges.

Classification (rating) – the class to which an article is assigned for the purpose of applying transportation charges.
Clean Bill of Lading – a bill of lading received by freight carriers for merchandise in good condition which does not bear such notation as “Shipper Load and Count,” etc.
Clear Record – a record that shows that a shipment was handled without any loss or damage being sustained.
Cleat – a strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping or to hold in position.
Closed Van – a unit with metal sides and top completely enclosing the freight being transported.
COD – cash or check paid for goods at delivery, which may include the cost of shipping.
Collector of Customs – a representative of the U.S. Treasury Department acting for the government in connection with foreign traffic.
Commercial Zone – a geographical area of commercial influence of a specified point.
Commodity – any article of freight. Goods shipped.
Commodity Rate – a rate applicable to an article described or named in the publication containing the rate.
Common Carrier – company that provides transportation services to the public in return for compensation.
Concealed Loss or Damage – loss or damage to the contents of a package that is not apparent until opened.
Concentration Point – a point at which less-than-truckload shipments are brought together to be re-forwarded as a truckload.
Connecting Carrier – a carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or forms a connecting link between two or more carriers.
Consignee – the person or organization to which freight is shipped.
Consignee Marks – a symbol placed on packages for export, generally consisting of a square, triangle, diamond, circle, cross, etc., with designation letter and/or numbers for the purpose of identification. • Containerization – shipping system based upon large cargo-carrying containers that can be easily be interchanged between trucks, trains and ships without re-handling of contents.
Continuous Seals – a term denoting that seals on a truck remain intact during the movement of the truck from point of origin to destination; or if broken in transit that it was done by the proper authority and without opportunity for loss to occur before new seals were applied.
Contract Carriers – a company that engages in for-hire transportation of property under an individual contract or agreement with one of a limited number of shippers.
Convertible – a unit that can be used as a flatbed or open top through the use of removable side panels.
Cubic Foot – 1,728 cubic inches.
Cubic Ton – 40 cubic feet.
Cubic Capacity – the carrying capacity of a truck according to measurement in cubic feet.
CWT – per hundredweight.


Dead Head – movement of freight without charges or movement of empty trailer.
Deck Trailers – trailers with rows of tracking on each sidewall and deck load bars—The load bars fit into the tracks to form temporary “decks” on which goods can be loaded. Decks allow more goods to be loaded in the trailer, reduce damage, and speed loading and unloading.
Delivery – the act of transferring possession, such as the transfer of property from shipper to carrier, one carrier to another or carrier to consignee.
Delivery Receipt – document a consignee or its agent dates and signs at delivery, stating the condition of the goods at delivery—The driver takes the signed delivery receipt to the terminal for retention. The customer retains the remaining copy.
Department of Transportation (DOT) – federal agency that regulates the highway transportation of freight including commodities designated as hazardous material.
Destination – the place to which a shipment is consigned.
Detention – a charge made for a vehicle held by or for shipper or consignee for loading or unloading, for forwarding directions or for any other purpose.
Direct – via the route of a single carrier.
Dispatch – The act of sending a driver on his/her assigned route with instructions and required shipping papers. YRC Freight maintains contact with drivers throughout the day by phone, pager, radio, satellite communication or cellular phone.
Distance Rate – rate that is applicable according to distance.
Distribution – generally considered to be the act of delivering less-than-truckload shipments within a city or an area beyond.
Diversion – any shipment relinquished to the shipper, consignee or his agent at point of origin or intermediate point or before the shipment has reached its ultimate destination.
Dock – the platform where trucks are loaded and unloaded.
Dock Receipt – a receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a pier or dock. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the transportation line and a bill of lading is issued.
Dolly – an auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel that is used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer or a small platform on rollers or wheels used to handle freight in a warehouse.
DOT (Department of Transportation) – federal agency that regulates the highway transportation of freight including commodities designated as hazardous materials.
Double Bottom – a combination of two semi-trailers or a semi-trailer and a full trailer, pulled by a tractor.
Doubles Trailer – any vehicle 28 feet or less in length handled as one unit, propelled or drawn by a single power unit.
Drag Line – a mechanized system consisting of a continuous chain, either overhead or recessed in the floor, used in a freight terminal to move shipments on carts from one part of the platform to another.
Drayage – also known as connecting road haulage

  1. the hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray)
  2. Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.

Dunnage – the material used to protect or support freight in or on trucks.
Duty – a tax levied by a government on the import, export, use or consumption of goods.


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – the electronic transmission of routine business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, and bills of lading, between computers in a standard format—The data formats, or transaction sets, are usually sent between mainframe computers.
En route – on the way.
End-of-line(EOL) – a terminal that receives inbound freight from the break-bulk for delivery and sends outbound freight to the break-bulk that has been picked up.
Entry (Customs) – a statement of the kinds, quantities and values of goods imported together with duties due, if any, and declared before a customs office or other designated officer.
E.P.A. – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, a federal agency that regulates hazardous substances in the environment.
Exceptions – An exception is any delivery in which the receiver or driver notes a problem on the delivery receipt before signing it. Typically, exceptions concern shortage and/or damage.
Exchange Bill of Lading – a bill of lading issued in exchange for another bill of lading.
Exclusive Use – A shipper pays a premium rate for the sole use of the trailer. The trailer will be sealed at loading, and the seal number is recorded on the manifest. The seal number is verified before the trailer is unloaded at destination. When a shipper requests an exclusive use trailer, no other freight may be added to the unit even if space permits.
Exempt Product – products that are exempt from federal regulation, such as agricultural and forestry products.
Expediting – to accelerate transportation. Expedited freight service is usually faster than normal service.
Expiration Notice – a notice in a publication that all, or some part of it, will expire at a stated time.
Export – any traffic having a subsequent movement to a foreign country.
Extended Service – a service offered by Saia in addition to the transportation of goods, such as stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload or storage.


False Billing – describing freight on shipping documents so as to misrepresent the actual contents of lading.
Fifth Wheel – part of a coupling device mounted on tractor that engages and locks with circular steel pin on a trailer.
Fixed Charges – charges that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic.
Flat Bed – a trailer with no sides and with floor of unit a standard height from the ground.
Fork Lift – a machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids.
Free Along Side (FAS) – a basis of pricing meaning the price of goods alongside a transport vessel at a specified location—The buyer is responsible for loading the goods onto the transport vessel and paying all the cost of shipping beyond that location.
Free On Board (FOB) – an acronym for “free on board” when used in a sales contract—The seller agrees to deliver merchandise, free of all transportation expense, to the place specified by the contract. After delivery is complete, the title to all the goods and the risk of damage become the buyer’s.

  • FOB Origin
    Title and risk pass to the buyer at the moment the seller delivers the goods to the carrier. The parties may agree to have title and risk pass at a different time or to allocate shipping charges by a written agreement.
  • FOB Destination
    Under this arrangement, title and risk remain with the seller until it has delivered the goods to the location specified in the contract.

Freight – merchandise hauled by a transportation line.
Freight Bill – Document for common carrier shipment. Gives description of the freight, amount of charges, taxes and whether prepaid or collect. Charges paid by the shipper are called prepaid freight bills. Charges collected at designation are called destination or collect freight bills.
Freight Broker – Any person who sells transportation without actually providing it. The term usually refers to an agent for truckload shipments, matching small shippers with carriers.
Freight Forwarder – one who assembles small shipments into one large shipment that is then tendered to a regulated over-the-road carrier. Upon reaching destination, the shipments are separated into small shipments.
Freight Line Charge – the cost of transporting freight.
Freight All Kinds (FAK) – the abbreviation applied to a pooling of different commodities for simplification of rating or pricing.


Gateway – a point which freight moving form one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines.
G.B.L. – Government Bill of Lading.
Gross Ton – 2,240 pounds, commonly called a long ton.
Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) – The combined weight of the vehicle (tractor and trailers) and its goods.


Hazard Class – numerical designation of the primary transportation hazard based upon the chemical and physical properties of the hazardous chemical. For example, the hazard class assigned to acetone is 3, which corresponds to a flammable liquid.
Hazardous Material (HM) – Hazardous materials are defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation in accordance with the Federal Hazardous Material Law. A substance or material may be designated as hazardous if the transportation of the material in a particular amount and form poses an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property. Hazardous material may include: an explosive, radioactive material, etiologic agent, flammable or combustible liquid or solid, poison, oxidizing or corrosive material, and compressed gas. For more general information, go to the U.S. DOT website by clicking here.
High Cube – a trailer body with above average cubic content.
Hot Tag – a shipment requiring special handling to achieve earlier-than-normal delivery service.
Hub – terminal serving regionally located end-of-line terminals as break-bulk. The hub of a “hub and spoke system” is the break-bulk and the spokes lead to the EOL terminals it serves.
Hundred Weight – a statement of weight meaning 100 pounds, abbreviated CWT.


IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) – regulations that govern the transportation of hazardous material by water outside the territorial boundaries of the United States.
Import – any traffic having a prior movement from a foreign country.
In Bond – shipments moving under U.S. Customs Bond.
Initial Carrier – the transportation line to which a shipment is delivered by the shipper.
Initial Point – the point at which a shipment originates.
Inland Carrier – a transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.
Interchange – transfer of freight from one carrier to another.
Interline – transfer of freight between two or more carriers.
Interline Freight – freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation providers.
Intermediate Carrier – a transportation line over which a shipment moves but on which neither the point of origin or destination is located.
Intermodal (also called Multimodal) – shipment moves by more than one mode of transportation (ground, air, rail or ocean).
Interstate – traffic having origin in one state and destination in another state.
Interstate Commerce Act – an act of Congress regulating the practices, rates and rules of transportation lines engaged in handling interstate traffic.
Intrastate – traffic having origin, destination, and entire transportation within the same state.


Jacket – a wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans or bottles.


Knocked Down – an article taken apart, folded or telescoped so as to reduce its normal size; packaged for shipping.
Knocked Down Flat – an article taken apart, folded or telescoped so as to reduce its cubage for shipping.
Known Loss – a loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.


Label, Hazard – a diamond shaped designation that has a unique pictorial symbol that describes each of nine hazard classes.
Lading – that which constitutes a load. The freight in a vehicle.
LTL (Less-than-Truckload) – a quantity of freight less than that required for the application of truckload rate.
Lien – a legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.
Limited Quantity (LTD QTY) – is a hazardous material that due to the quantity of material and type of packaging container may be exempt form labeling requirements, if it is not classified as a 6.1 poison.
Line haul – the movement of freight between carrier terminals, excluding pickup and delivery service.
Line haul truck – vehicles used to haul freight long distances, usually a tractor-trailer combination of three or more axles.
Loading – furnishing to Saia the Bill of Lading, forwarding directions, or other documents necessary for forwarding the shipment. Notification to Saia that the vehicle is loaded and ready for forwarding.
Local Terminal – a local facility of a transportation line.
Log Book – a book carried and kept by truck drivers containing daily records of hours, routes, etc.
Long Ton – 2,240 pounds.
Loose – not packed.


Marks – letters, numbers or characters placed on a package for the purpose of identification.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) – an informational bulletin prepared by a manufacturer that identifies the chemical or trade name of the hazardous ingredients, the potential hazards associated with these chemicals, emergency first aid procedures associated with the overexposure to the chemicals, precautions for safe handling of the chemicals and procedures for cleanup and proper disposal of any material that has been spilled. An MSDS contains this information:
-Control measures Identity
-Emergency telephone numbers Physical and chemical
-Fire and explosion hazard data characteristics
-Hazardous ingredients Precautions
-Reactivity (if mixed) Health hazard data
Maximum Rate – the highest rate that may be charged.
Memorandum Bill of Lading – the third part of a multiple set bill of lading.
Mile – 5,280 feet.
Mileage Rate – rates applied according to distance.
Minimum Charge – the least charge for which a shipment will be handled.
Mixed Truckload – a truckload of different articles combined into a single shipment.
Motor Vehicle – any vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer or semitrailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used upon the highways in transportation of passengers or property.
Multimodal Transportation (also called Intermodal) – shipment moves by more than one mode of transportation (ground, air, rail or ocean).


National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) – a publication for motor carriers containing rules, descriptions and ratings on all commodities moving in commerce.
Nested – packed one within another.
Net Ton – 2,000 pounds.
Net Weight – the weight of an article clear of its packing and contents of the truck.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers (NVOCC) – a type of ocean freight forwarder—NVOCCs books space in large quantities for a reduced rate, then sell space to shippers in lesser amounts. NVOCCs consolidate smaller shipments into a container load that ships under one bill of lading.
Notice – information given signifying the accomplishment of an act, such as the placement of a trailer for loading or unloading.


Open Top – a unit with sides but no roof.
Operating Expense – the cost incident to the actual handling of traffic.
Operating Ratio – the relation of operating expenses to gross receipts.
Order Notify (also called Negotiable Bill of Lading) – a shipment requiring the consignee to surrender the original endorsed bill of lading at the time of delivery—A shipper may use this method to guarantee payment for goods shipped. It’s most commonly used with truckload shipments.
Origin – site where the shipment first enters the carrier’s system.
Overage – excess freight over the quantity believed to have been shipped, or more than the quantity shown on the shipping document.
O S & D (Over, Short and Damaged) – a term used to describe a shipment that has been damaged or lost in transit or that arrives with more containers than originally shipped.


P & D – pickup and delivery of freight.
Packing Group – a designation that corresponds to the degree of danger presented by a hazardous material. Packing Group I indicates GREAT DANGER. Packing Group II indicates MEDIUM DANGER. Packing Group III indicates MINOR DANGER.
Packing List – a detailed inventory of items contained in a shipment.
Pallet – a small wooden, paper or metal platform usually with top and bottom, on which packaged goods are placed to facilitate movement by some type of freight handling equipment.
Payment Terms – Generally, the shipper is responsible for payment for prepaid shipments, and the consignee is responsible for payment for collect shipments unless a third party is indicated as payor on the shipping papers.
Peddle Run – pickup or delivery route traveled by a city truck.
Perishable freight – freight subject to decay or deterioration.
Permits – authority or permit granted by a local state or federal agency to contract carriers by motor vehicle to operate in interstate commerce.
Pickup – service of a carrier in calling for and collecting freight to be transported over its line.
Pickup or Delivery Allowance – a discount offered by Saia to the consignee for pickup or shipper for delivery of freight to its terminal.
Placard – a diamond shaped sign of specified dimensions placed on both sides of trailer, and rear that communicates the hazard of freight inside the trailer.
Point of entry – a port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country. The government officially designates ports of entry.
Point of Origin – the terminal that picks up freight from a shipper.
Premises – the entire property or facilities of the consignor, consignee, or other designated party.
Prepaid – a term denoting that transportation charges have been paid or are to be paid at the point of shipment.
Prior to Tender of Delivery – before shipment has been loaded on delivery vehicle (in cases where shipment is transferred to city delivery vehicle for delivery) or before shipment has been dispatched for delivery (in cases where shipment is not transferred to city vehicle for delivery).
Private Carrier – a transportation line not engaged in business as a general public employment.
Private Residence – apartments, churches, schools, camps and other such locations not generally recognized as commercial locations and shall apply to the entire premises, except any portion of the premises where commercial or business activity is conducted that involves the sales of services, products or merchandise to the walk-in public during normal business hours.
PRO – a number issued to each shipment of freight by the carrier and used for computer tracking of the shipment to its destination.
Prohibited Articles – articles that will not be handled.
Proof of Delivery – (also called P.O.D.) the delivery receipt copy of freight bill by receiver at time of delivery.
Proper Shipping Name – the name of a hazardous material designated by the DOT for highway transportation. For example, the proper shipping name for the refrigerant R-12 is “dichlorodifluoromethane.”
Pup – a trailer usually connected in tandem to another trailer for over-the-road travel. A set of two pups connected together is often called “double bottoms.”


Rate – the charge for transporting freight.
Rate Base Number – number used to determine rates applicable between two points.
Rate Basis Point – point on which rate is made or at which the rate is divided; or point to which other points are assigned for purposes of determining rates.
Rate Scale – a table of rates graduated according to distances or zones.
Reconsignment – a change in the route made in a consignment before the arrival of the goods at their billed destination; or any change made in a consignment after the arrival of goods at their billed destination, when the change is made under conditions which make it subject to the reconsignment rules and charges of Saia.
Released Value – value of goods set by shipper in consideration of rate to be charged.
Reportable Quantity (RQ) – a hazardous substance defined by the DOT with specific quantity limits per package that require notification of the National Response Center and if the specified quantity is released as the result of a spill.
Reshipment – goods reshipped under conditions that do not make the act subject to the reconsignment rules and charges of the carrier.
Restricted Articles – articles that are handled only under certain conditions.
Return to Shipper – any shipment returned to the same location at which it was originally tendered to the carrier.
Revenue – shipping charges the transportation provider receives for transporting goods.
Route – the course or direction that a shipment moves.


Seal – a device for fastening or locking the doors of a truck.
Scale of Rates – numerous rates adjusted with reaction to each other.
Script Sheet – form of statement, carried by the driver, showing essential details of all shipments loaded in his truck.
Semi-trailer – a vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon, or is carried by, a towing vehicle.
Set-Up – a term denoting complete assembly of an article or an assembled article.
Shipment – one or more pieces of freight with the same shipper or consignee.
Shipper – company or individual who initiates the transport of goods.
Shipper’s Agent – A Shipper’s Agent is not a carrier, freight forwarder, or broker. Shipper’s agents generally arrange for truckload or container load shipment transportation. Shipper’s agents commonly provide services related to warehousing or loading and unloading. (See also Freight Forwarder and Broker).
Shipping Documents – papers accompanying a shipment as it moves through the carrier’s system, including bills of lading, packing slips, Customs paperwork, manifests, and shipment bills.
Shipping Order – Freight carries copy of the bill of lading.
Shipper Load and Count – the process by which the shipper places goods into freight carriers trailer at his own site. With shipper Load and Count there is no opportunity for joint check of the goods by shipper and freight carrier. The shipper is responsible for the proper loading and verification of the goods being shipped.
Shortage – a deficiency in quantity shipped.
Site – a specific location at or on the premises of the consignor, consignee, or other designated party.
Slider – a trailer with a rear axle set that may be moved forward to the rear of the trailer to adjust the turning radius or weight balance for the type of load being hauled.
Split Pickup or Delivery – picking up or delivering volume shipments at more than one place within confines of origin or destination points.
Spotting – The placing, detaching and leaving in possession of a trailer unaccompanied by a tractor or power unit at a specific site designated by the consignor, consignee, or other party designated.
Standard Rate – a rate established via direct routes from one point or another in relation to which the rates via other routes between same points are made.
Standard Route – line or lines that maintain standard rates.
Statute of Limitation – a statement within the bill of lading contract that places a limit on the time in which claims or suit may be instituted.
Storage – a charge made on property stored.
Storage-in-Transit – storage of property at a point other than the origin or destination of a shipment under application of a rate.
Store Door Delivery – the movement of goods to the consignee’s place of business.
Surcharge – a charge above the usual or customary charge.
Surtax – an additional or extra tax.


Tare Weight – the weight of a container and the material used for packing.
Tariff – A Tariff is a document setting forth applicable rules, rates, and charges to move goods. A tariff sets forth a contract for the shipper, the consignee, and the carrier. Since January 1, 1996, motor carriers are not required to publish tariffs. However, in accordance with federal law, tariffs must be provided to a shipper on request.
Tender – to offer goods for transportation, or to offer to place trucks for loading or unloading.
Terminal – a building for the handling and temporary storage of freight pending transfer between locations.
Third Party – a payor of the freight charges shown on the bill of lading that is neither the shipper or consignee.
Tolerance – an allowance made for difference in weights due to variations in scales or inherent nature of goods.
Ton-Mile – a unit used in comparing freight earnings or expenses. The amount earned form or the cost of hauling a ton of freight one mile.
Tonnage – the number of tons of freight handled.
Trace – to follow the movement of a shipment.
Tractor – a mechanically powered unit to propel or draw a trailer or trailers upon the highways.
Traffic – persons and property carried by transportation lines.
Trailer – mobile units, with or without wheels, used to transport property.
Trailer Interchange – transfer of trailer and lading from one transportation line to another.
Transport – to move traffic form one place to another.
Truckload (TL) – quantity of freight required to fill a truck. When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify shipment for a truckload rate.


Unclaimed Freight – freight that has not been called for by the consignee or owner.
Unit of Traffic – the average number of tons of freight hauled one mile.
Unloading – surrender of the Bill of Lading to freight carrier on shipments billed “To Order.”
-Payment of lawful charges to the carrier when required prior to delivery of the shipment.
-Notification to freight carrier that vehicle is unloaded and ready for forwarding.
-Signing of delivery receipt.
UN Number – a four-digit number assigned to hazardous material required by the DOT for highway transportation, by IMDG for water transit, and by ICAO for air. It is used to help designate the emergency response procedure in the event of a spill or release.
U. S. Mainland – the 48 contiguous states.


Valuation, Actual – actual value of goods required to be shown on the bill of lading by shippers, where rate applied is dependent upon that fact.
Vehicle – any vehicle or combination of vehicles handled as one unit, of not less than 35 feet in length, propelled or drawn by a single power unit. When the vehicle consists of a power unit and two or more trailers or containers, the combined length of the trailers or containers must not exceed 60 feet.
Volume Rate – commodity rates that are specifically made subject to a minimum weight of 5,000, 7,500, or 10,000 pounds or more. Dependent on carrier specifications.


Warehouse – a place for the receipt and storage of goods.
Warehouse Receipt – a receipt given for goods placed in a warehouse.
Waybill – description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment (Same as freight bill).
Weight Sheets – itemized list furnished by shippers to weighing bureaus showing articles in each consignment.
Wet Goods – liquids.